A new method for the computation of technical losses in electrical power distribution systems Abstract: This paper aims at presenting a new method for the evaluation of technical demand and energy losses in electrical power distribution systems. A computational tool was developed and implemented at Eletropaulo, the largest distribution company in Brazil. The methodology divides the distribution system into eight different segments, namely: energy meters, customer connections to the network, low voltage network, distribution transformers, medium voltage network, distribution substations, subtransmission system and other technical losses.
Users of large amounts of DC power such as some railway electrification systems , telephone exchanges and industrial processes such as aluminium smelting use rectifiers to derive DC from the public AC supply, or may have their own generation systems. High-voltage DC can be advantageous for isolating alternating-current systems or controlling the quantity of electricity transmitted. From the generating station it goes to the generating station's switchyard where a step-up transformer increases the voltage to a level suitable for transmission, from 44 kV to kV.
Once in the transmission system, electricity from each generating station is combined with electricity produced elsewhere. Electricity is consumed as soon as it is produced. It is transmitted at a very high speed, close to the speed of light. Distribution networks are divided into two types, radial or network. A network system has multiple sources of supply operating in parallel. Spot networks are used for concentrated loads. Radial systems are commonly used in rural or suburban areas. Radial systems usually include emergency connections where the system can be reconfigured in case of problems, such as a fault or planned maintenance.
Electric power distribution
This can be done by opening and closing switches to isolate a certain section from the grid. Long feeders experience voltage drop power factor distortion requiring capacitors or voltage regulators to be installed. Reconfiguration, by exchanging the functional links between the elements of the system, represents one of the most important measures which can improve the operational performance of a distribution system.
The problem of optimization through the reconfiguration of a power distribution system, in terms of its definition, is a historical single objective problem with constraints. Since , when Merlin and Back  introduced the idea of distribution system reconfiguration for active power loss reduction, until nowadays, a lot of researchers have proposed diverse methods and algorithms to solve the reconfiguration problem as a single objective problem.
Some authors have proposed Pareto optimality based approaches including active power losses and reliability indices as objectives. For this purpose, different artificial intelligence based methods have been used: microgenetic,  branch exchange,  particle swarm optimization  and non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. Rural electrification systems tend to use higher distribution voltages because of the longer distances covered by distribution lines see Rural Electrification Administration.
Rural services normally try to minimize the number of poles and wires.
Facility Power Distribution Systems (Energy Engineering)
It uses higher voltages than urban distribution , which in turn permits use of galvanized steel wire. The strong steel wire allows for less expensive wide pole spacing. In rural areas a pole-mount transformer may serve only one customer. Three phase service provides power for large agricultural facilities, petroleum pumping facilities, water plants, or other customers that have large loads Three phase equipment. In North America, overhead distribution systems may be three phase, four wire, with a neutral conductor. Rural distribution system may have long runs of one phase conductor and a neutral.
This is called an ungrounded wye system.
It is delivered to domestic customers as single-phase electric power. In some countries as in Europe a three phase supply may be made available for larger properties.
Some large European appliances may be powered by three-phase power, such as electric stoves and clothes dryers. A ground connection is normally provided for the customer's system as well as for the equipment owned by the utility. The purpose of connecting the customer's system to ground is to limit the voltage that may develop if high voltage conductors fall down onto lower-voltage conductors which are usually mounted lower to the ground, or if a failure occurs within a distribution transformer.
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Three live hot wires and the neutral are connected to the building for a three phase service. Single-phase distribution, with one live wire and the neutral is used domestically where total loads are light.https://siogebousu.cf
Electric Power eTool: Illustrated Glossary - Distribution System
In Europe, electricity is normally distributed for industry and domestic use by the three-phase, four wire system. This gives a phase-to-phase voltage of volts wye service and a single-phase voltage of volts between any one phase and neutral. North American transformers usually power homes at volts, similar to Europe's volts. It is the split-phase that allows use of volts in the home. The grids grew until eventually the entire country was wired. All critical aspects of power production, distribution, control, conversion and measurement are clearly presented.
The authors place emphasis on real-world applications, examining electrical distribution and associated system operation from a user's or technician's point of view. The use of an electrical power systems' model facilitates the reader's comprehensive understanding of electrical distribution, utilizing power distribution as a key starting point, and then clearly delineating the relationship to other important associated systems. The final chapter of this new edition has been refocused to emphasize the economics of distribution systems, computer power requirements and current environmental considerations.