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Sloan, and C. Koh, Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases , 3rd ed. One most critical operation in oil and gas flow assurance is the prediction of the hydrate conditions at which gas hydrates will form in production pipelines and facilities. According to Sloan and Koh [ 14 E. The hand-calculation is basically accurate for single gas system and has limited applicability, the empirical model mostly based on the van der Waals-Platteew model mostly face challenges in mixed gas predictions.

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Hesami, M. Dehghani, Z. Kamali, and A. Bakyani, "Developing a simple-to-use predictive model for prediction of hydrate formation temperature", Int. Ambient Energy , vol. Herath et al.

Herath, F. Khan, S. Rathnayaka, and M. Rahman, "Probabilistic estimation of hydrate formation", J. Currently water removal, depressurisation, heating and chemical inhibition are the available methods to prevent hydrate formation, but chemical inhibition is currently used since it is economical and practically applicable than the other methods. Thermodynamic Hydrate Inhibitors THIs such as alcohols and glycols are injected to change the hydrate formation conditions of the hydrate free zone. THIs shift hydrate phase boundary to a lower temperature and higher pressure by reducing the water activity, allowing the actual field operations outside Hydrate Stability Zone HSZ to have suffiecient inhibition.

The type and amount of inhibitor needed to prevent hydrate is important in every production flow assurance sector for economic and environmental reasons.

Natural Gas Hydrates in Flow Assurance | IChemE

Methanol and glycols are still actively used in the industry for hydrate mitigation [ 17 K. Bullin, and J. Proc , , pp. Yang, A. Chapoy, S. Mazloum, B. Tohidi, and G. Hydrate, "A novel technique for monitoring hydrate safety margin", SPE , pp. There are several reported experimental and simulation studies on natural hydrates mitigation on different oil and gas fields in the world.

For example in areas like China [ 19 R. Sun, C.

Gas Hydrates and Flow Assurance

Li, S. Yu, S. Wang, O. Sun, and E. Liu, "Hydrate formation conditions of natural gas with high content of carbon dioxide and the calculation model", Soc. Oil Gas Conf. Huang, "Simulation of hydrate formation and inhibition in submarine wet-gas pipeline", Proc.

Offshore Polar Eng. Gupta, and S. Singh, "Hydrate inhibition - Optimization in deep water field", Soc. Tougher Quest Contin. Budd, D. Hurd, M.

Pakulski, and T. However, none has been reported on the Keta basin of Ghana. Recently, Kim et al. Kim, B. Yi, N. Kang, and D. The experimental results were modelled using CSMGem. They suggested that, NaCl synergically increases the inhibition impact of MEG in an under-inhibition condition.

Huang [ 20 M. However, N 2 and CO 2 showed negligible effect on the wet-gases systems. According to an experimental study by Lee and Kang [ 25 J. Lee, and S. Kang, "Formation behaviours of mixed gas hydrates including olefin compounds", Chem.

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Furthermore, Obanijesu et al. Chul, S. Bin, J. Yoon, M. Kim, and Y. Yoon, "Experimental study on the effect of N2, CO2, and steam dilution on the combustion performance of H 2 and CO synthetic gas in an industrial gas turbine", Fuel , vol. Rajnauth et al. Rajnauth, M. Barrufet, and G. Falcone, "Hydrate formation: Considering the effects of pressure, temperature, composition and water", 72nd Eur. SPE Eur. Prior to the study, a PVTSim sensitivity analysis was performed to validate the theoretical model and ensure reliable predictions. Ward et al. Ward, C. Deering, R. Marriott, A. Sum, E.

Koh, "Phase equilibrium data and model comparisons for H 2 S hydrates", J. In addition, Sule and Rahman [ 29 I. Fridjonsson, M. Morrissy, A. McKenzie, B. Graham, M. Johns, E. May, Z. Charlton, Z.

Di Lorenzo, L. Zerpa, C.